The most important part of your car is its engine. Getting to know the parts in the engine will helpful for small repairs in emergencies. The core part of the engine contains a cylinders. There is a cylinder moving up and down. If it is a multi-cylinder engine, the pistons arranged horizontally opposed in a single line, or with an angle to one on other opposite. Each type of alignment has its advantages.
Connecting rod: Sometimes connecting rod is also called as conrod. The crankshaft connects with the connecting rod. When the crankshaft rotates and the piston is moving, the connecting rod angle change. It works with a simple mechanism as converts the reciprocating motion into rotating motion. And can also convert rotating motion into reciprocating motion.
Crankshaft: Also called crank, cankshaft translates the reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation with crank throws or crankpins. To reduce pulsation of four stroke cycle it is connected to a flywheel.
Spark plug: The spark plug sends spark or ignition from electric current ignition system to combustion chamber. The spark happens at right moment to make things work properly. It has a metal threaded shell and is electrically separated from a central electrode by a porcelain insulator. Spark plugs are used to measure the ionization temperature in the cylinders.
Sump: It surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil. In a wet sump engine system, the extra oil stored in a oil pan, the oil pump sucks oil from the bottom through a tube and pumps it to the engine. In a dry sump system, extra oil stored at outside the engine in a tank. In the dry sump, an oil pump pulls oil from sump and send it to the tank. Other pump takes oil from tank and sends it to lubricate engine.
Piston: The piston moves up and down in the cylinder. It is made gas tight by piston rings. With the connecting rod or piston rod it transfer force from expanding gas in cylinder to the crankshaft.
Piston Rings: These will provide smooth or sliding seal between the inner edge of the cylinder and the outer edge of the piston. Piston rings prevent fuel and air getting mixed, and during compression of combustion prevent from leaking. These will keep the oil in the sump which is leaking from combustion.
Valves: To let out exhaust and to let in air and fuel, the exhaust and intake valves open at the proper time. The combustion chamber is sealed during combustion and compression because of both valves closed at that time.
The parts discussed here are specifically related to combustion engines or gasoline or diesel engines. Knowing of their function is likely to help your prevent issues and maintain your car better.